Beyond the Subtitle: Remapping European Art Cinema
Cottage on Dartmoor scene of watching a silent film with aduience members in the movie theater in this silent film. Audiocommentaries on DVD versus notes on film to be read silently as apratexts.
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In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved. Cancel Submit. How was your experience with this page? Needs Improvement Love it! This anthology is driven by the reflection that multilingualism is one of the impellent cultural forces of the last two centuries, and that, as such, it has had an extensive and profound impact on cinema.
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Whether understood as an individual characteristic, such as may derive from a diasporic upbringing or from migration into a nonnative linguistic environment, or as a pervasive societal condition—brought about by various mass displacements and colonization projects, and recently intensified by media globalization—multilingualism encompasses both the generative experience of linguistic confrontation and exchange and the adversity of linguistic destabilization, repression or loss.
It therefore bears a series of social, political, psychological and even ethical implications whose relevance to contemporary culture and society has indeed been widely examined, but whose relation to cinema has been left largely unexplored. Yet even a cursory glance at the history of film—that is, the history of its production, distribution, reception and theorization—reveals countless indications of the centrality of multilingualism in filmmaking practices.
At the same time, the further escalation of migration and multilingualism in recent years, and their increasing relevance to areas of the world previously either untouched by such demographic and cultural shifts or without the means to confront them cinematically, is equally in need of scholarly 2 attention.
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In the first instance, and quite simply, this entails an effort to broaden the field of research by looking to the least studied geographic contexts and the least circulated films, as well as by opening the discourse of the transnational to films and contexts that may not, on the surface, appear to be informed by transnational and thus multilingual forces, or that have not typically been viewed in that light. On the other hand, and perhaps most importantly, there is a need to redraw the conceptual parameters of this field of research: namely, by further reflecting on and theorizing the numerous ways in which multilingualism has impacted on cinema without actually appearing as such , in the form of either original or translated dialogue.
The Multilingual Screen takes a step in this direction, reassessing the methodologies and frameworks that have influenced the study of filmic multilingualism to propose that its force is also, and perhaps counterintuitively, a silent one. One burgeoning line of inquiry, which extends also to the field of translation studies, concerns the relationship between cinema and audiovisual translation. While a number of the essays collected here both rest and build on these and similar studies, the volume as a whole also appeals to a different and more veiled tradition.
It is equally clear in T.
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In all four of these cases, the analysis is not prompted, at least not primarily, by any audible multiplicity of languages in the works in question, but rather by a study of the biographical, cultural and theoretical contexts in which they emerge and with which they communicate. The question of the undercurrents of polyglottism running beneath linguistically homogeneous films assumes further and particular urgency in relation to cinemas imprinted by the monolingual politics that have distinguished the histories of most modern nation states—that is, politics of exclusion and cultural suppression of minority languages and dialects.
11 - World cinema
In certain contexts, these links between national language politics and film production dynamics have already begun to be examined, sometimes spawning entire fields of scholarly inquiry. Yet other essays, dedicated to contemporary filmmaking practices, trace the ongoing relevance of monolingual or exclusionary language politics to film production. What emerges with particular force here is the extent to which the current era of increasing polyglottism and linguistic mobility is also marked by repressive or prescriptive language politics—whether developed in reaction to rising levels of immigration for example, the use of language analysis as a means of border control , or in concomitance with more pervasive moves toward nationalism and cultural protectionism.
Though invested in the varied critical interventions undertaken in these individual chapters, The Multilingual Screen does not propose to offer an exhaustive view of this area of research. Unlike the polyglot films discussed in recent studies of cinematic multilingualism, Pina uses its nine languages as a transactional tool. Gramling reads this tendency alongside the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, an internationally implemented and widely criticized model for measuring linguistic competence. Similar concerns regarding institutional and governmental definitions and instrumentalizations of language surface in the interview with T.
Coates idenjpgies an interconnetion among three losses—of black-and-white film language, of spoken language, and of homeland and rootedness—and uncovers the ways that formal innovations in the use of color register their impact. James S. Williams explores the aesthetics of the multilingual soundtrack in recent West African Francophone cinema, with a particular focus on the work of Mahamat-Saleh Haroun and Abderrahmane Sissako.
Brian Hochman 9 traces the correlation between the disappearance of Native American languages in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the evolution of the culture of media preservation in the United States. Drawing on original archival research, he examines two s documentaries by Hugh Lenox Scott and Richard Sanderville dedicated to presenting Plains Indian Sign Language—a visual lingua franca among Plains Indian peoples.
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Addressing a more recent and widely discussed historical period, Alison Smith idenjpgies the transnational currents influencing French cinema in the s and s. Focusing on the much less canonical context of new Tunisian cinema, Robert Lang provides an important commentary on the politics of bilingualism and its impact on the development of post-liberation national identity in the Maghreb region. In doing so, his essay simultaneously presents a history of new Tunisian cinema and an exploration of its historical engagements as they are defined by linked concerns with language and national identity.
Focusing on Japanese-led film production in Manchuria and Korea during the late s and early s, Kate Taylor-Jones provides insight into the linguistic politics of Colonial Japan, whose contradictions challenged the ethos of the Empire and deeply undermined its purportedly inclusive cultural politics. Jaap Verheul turns his attention to the analysis of an emergent intercultural paradox, examining the linguistic and political dynamics involved in a recent 11 cycle of Dutch-Flemish remakes notable for the fact that the process of adaptation was embraced despite the official absence of linguistic necessity.
The section closes with an interview with Carlos A. Some of the more classic studies include: Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, eds.