# Physics Review: The Five Basic Rules of Energy and Change (Quick Review Notes)

C capacitance Carnot cycle Carnot efficiency Carnot engine Celsius Chaos Classical relativity 3.

Colliding beams Compton effect Conduction Conductors Conservation of total Contrast Convection Coriolis force 6. Cosmology Coulomb force Coulomb forces Coulomb interaction Coulomb's law Critical damping Critical pressure Curie temperature Current sensitivity Density Diffusion Direct current Dispersion Distance 2.

Distance traveled 2. Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler-shifted ultrasound Double-slit interference E eddy current Elapsed time 2.

## 15 important laws of Physics

Electric field lines Electric generators Electrical energy 7. Electromagnetism Electron capture Electrostatic repulsion English units 1. Extremely low frequency ELF F Fahrenheit Faraday cage Farsightedness Feynman diagram Fiber optics Flow rate Fluorescence Food irradiation Frequency G galvanometer Gamma decay Gamma rays Geiger tube Gravitational waves GUT epoch H Hadrons Hall effect Hall emf Hearing Heisenberg uncertainty principle Higgs boson Holography Hooke's law 5. Hormesis Hubble constant Human metabolism For example, a transfer diagram for a child at the top of a slide may be:.

Gravitational energy stored in the child at the top of the slide is transferred as mechanical work done to speed up and to do work against friction. The result of this is a shift of energy from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and internal energy raising the temperature of the child and the slide. Sankey diagrams start off as one arrow that splits into two or more points.

This shows how all of the energy in a system is transferred into different stores. Sankey diagrams are really useful when the amount of energy in each of the energy sources is known. The width of the arrow is drawn to scale to show the amount of energy. Energy transfers Systems and stores Energy can remain in the same store for millions of years or sometimes just for a fraction of a second.

Each point in the phase space for this system tells you where all 4 balls are located in the box. In our example we are only interested in the positions of the 4 particles, so each point in phase space must contain an x, y, and z co-ordinate for each particle so our phase space is 3N dimensional, where N is the number of particles in the system. So in our case, the phase space is 12 dimensional, in order that each point can describe the location of 4 bodies.

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In all the diagrams I will depict the phase space as 2D to make it easier to convey what it actually represents. For our purposes we will not need to consider the dimensions. If we imagine that each of the particles is a different colour so we can keep track of their positions easier. If we imagine the case where all of the particles are located in one corner of the container then we have the situation.

## Important Laws of Physics

In terms of the system, there are multiple other combinations of the 4 particles that will be as organised as the above state. Each of these set-ups will correspond to a different position in phase space as they are all different layouts of the system of the 4 particles.

If we add these to the phase space along with the original we get something like. These 5 layouts of the 4 particles, along with the 11 other combinations, make up a set of states that are apart from the colours indistinguishable. So in the phase space we could put a box around the 16 states that defines all the states inside it as being macroscopically indistinguishable. The total phase space of a system will have many regions all of different shapes and sizes and could look like the following.

### Gold Standard MCAT Physics Equations Sheet (List of MCAT Physics Formulas)

But how is all this abstract representation linked to entropy. Entropy, given in equations as the symbol , is defined then as. Where is Boltzmann constant and is the volume of the box in phase space. The insertion of the k seemed to have come first from Planck. Entropy can also be defined as the change when energy is transfered at a constant temperature.